Drug-induced Osteoporosis in the Older Adult. (Review)
Drug-induced osteoporosis in the older adult
Mary Beth O'Connell, Laura M Borgelt, Susan K Bowles & Sheryl F Vondracek
The elderly population is at risk for polypharmacy and, therefore, also at risk for drug-induced osteoporosis (DIOP). Epidemiologic studies provide valuable information about medications that may place patients at risk for DIOP. While glucocorticoids are the most common cause of DIOP, the use of several other therapeutic agents can place patients at risk for significant bone loss and fracture. These medications include, but are not limited to, aromatase inhibitors, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, thyroid replacement therapy, antiepileptics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium, gastric acid lowering agents, thiazolidinediones, loop diuretics, heparins and warfarin, vitamin A and cyclosporine. This article provides information about their mechanism of action, studies that have evaluated these agents in DIOP and prevention and treatment strategies.