Carotenoids and the risk of developing lung cancer

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Carotenoids and the risk of developing lung cancer

Gallicchio L, Boyd K, Matanoski G, et al. Carotenoids and the risk of developing lung cancer: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 Aug;88(2):372-383. (Review)


American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 2, 372-383, August 2008
© 2008 American Society for Nutrition

Carotenoids and the risk of developing lung cancer: a systematic review1,2,3
Lisa Gallicchio, Kristina Boyd, Genevieve Matanoski, Xuguang (Grant) Tao, Liwei Chen, Tram K Lam, Meredith Shiels, Edward Hammond, Karen A Robinson, Laura E Caulfield, James G Herman, Eliseo Guallar and Anthony J Alberg
1 From the The Prevention and Research Center, Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (LG); the Departments of Epidemiology (LG, KB, GM, XT, TKL, MS, EH, EG, and AJA) and International Health, Center for Human Nutrition (LC and LEC), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; the Departments of General Internal Medicine (KAR), Oncology (JGH and AJA), and Occupational and Environmental Medicine (XT), Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; and the Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Hollings Cancer Center and the Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics, and Epidemiology, The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (AJA)

Background: Carotenoids are thought to have anti-cancer properties, but findings from population-based research have been inconsistent.
Objective: We aimed to conduct a systematic review of the associations between carotenoids and lung cancer.
Design: We searched electronic databases for articles published through September 2007. Six randomized clinical trials examining the efficacy of ?-carotene supplements and 25 prospective observational studies assessing the associations between carotenoids and lung cancer were analyzed by using random-effects meta-analysis.
Results: The pooled relative risk (RR) for the studies comparing ?-carotene supplements with placebo was 1.10 (95% confidence limits: 0.89, 1.36; P = 0.39). Among the observational studies that adjusted for smoking, the pooled RRs comparing highest and lowest categories of total carotenoid intake and of total carotenoid serum concentrations were 0.79 (0.71, 0.87; P Conclusions: ?-Carotene supplementation is not associated with a decrease in the risk of developing lung cancer. Findings from prospective cohort studies suggest inverse associations between carotenoids and lung cancer; however, the decreases in risk are generally small and not statistically significant. These inverse associations may be the result of carotenoid measurements’ function as a marker of a healthier lifestyle (higher fruit and vegetable consumption) or of residual confounding by smoking.

Copyright © 2008 by The American Society for Nutrition